Knee arthrosis

Knee arthrosis

Arthrosis of the knee joint (osteoarthritis) is a complex disease of the degenerative-dystrophic type, during the development of which processes occur that affect the bone-cartilaginous tissues of the knee.

Pathological changes in the articular tissues, which negatively affect the musculoskeletal potential of the lower extremities. The progress of arthrosis of the knee leads to difficulty in mobility, loss of stability and a significant decrease in motor and shock-absorbing abilities.

What should be done to maintain the mobility of one's own body for many years and what to do if the indicators of physical activity and the level of quality of life have decreased due to arthrosis of the knee joint? Let's try to understand this difficult issue.

Features of the development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Knee arthrosis- This is a common pathology that belongs to the category of the most common diseases that have an extremely negative impact on the quality of human life.

Degenerative-dystrophic processes are most clearly manifested in the form of physical dysfunction of the legs, accompanied by severe pain syndrome. Depending on how strongly the pathological process progresses, further forecasts of the course of the disease are built.

One of the disappointing forecasts is paralysis of the lower extremities. The severity of the consequences of pathological processes necessitates seeking qualified medical care.

What Causes Lead to Knee Arthrosis?

To identify the causes of arthrosis of the knee joint, it took a lot of research. Long-term examinations of patients and a thorough study of the clinical picture of pathology allowed specialists to come to the conclusion that the influence of a number of negative factors is the root cause of the destruction of joint tissues, causing severe pain and inflammation.

Among the main reasons leading to degenerative-dystrophic processes, it is worth highlighting:

  • suffered injuries - a bruise, dislocation or fracture of the knee automatically classifies a person as a risk group and can cause the development of the disease. Damage to the joint implies its fixation, and long-term immobility is a direct path to the formation of arthrosis;
  • strong physical activity - strenuous stress on the knees (especially in older people) leads to microtraumas, which also leads to the development of negative pathological processes;
  • insufficiently strong ligamentous apparatus - abnormal joint mobility also negatively affects their condition, which manifests itself mainly in old age;
  • overweight - extra pounds can cause irreparable harm to the knee joints, because the likelihood of meniscus injuries in this case is incredibly high. If a large weight is accompanied by varicose veins, then there is a high probability of developing severe forms of arthrosis of the joints of the lower extremities;
  • metabolic disorders - a failure in the metabolism of nutrients and elements in the body provokes the development of various kinds of diseases, which is due to insufficient supply of various tissues, in particular bone and cartilaginous;
  • increased stress levels - worries and experiences negatively affect not only the mood of people, but also the level of physical well-being.

Typical symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint

The symptomatic manifestation of the disease allows you to timely track the onset and development of pathological processes, which gives each patient the opportunity to recover.

Before determining who to seek help and how to treat arthrosis of the knee joint, it is important to get acquainted with the symptoms of the disease.

Only a specialist competent in this matter can identify the presence and confirm the diagnosis by prescribing treatment for arthrosis of the knee. However, every patient should know the main symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, among which it is customary to distinguish:

  • pain - discomfort that gradually develops into painful sensations does not appear immediately. Their insignificant manifestation in the knees can bother a person for many years, but at some point they may become stronger, and they will not stop in a calm state;
  • crunch - "clicks" during flexion / extension of the joint are a wake-up call, which manifests itself already at the second, third stage of the disease;
  • synovitis - inflammation of the joint membrane, in which fluid accumulates, which leads to local swelling;
  • deformation is a characteristic feature that manifests itself in the last stages of the disease, accompanied by pronounced inflammation and swelling.

Diagnosis of arthrosis of the knee joint

The diagnosis and treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint is carried out by an orthopedist or rheumatologist. If you want to undergo a diagnostic examination, each patient can turn to a therapist who will give a referral to a narrow-profile specialist or take a ticket to one of them on his own.

The main diagnostic tool for specialists is, of course, the X-ray apparatus. Thanks to the picture taken, you can track not only the presence of pathology, but also the degree of its development.

It is important to note that X-ray eliminates the likelihood of the presence of other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

X-ray examination opens up the opportunity for a specialist to:

  • track the narrowing of the joint space;
  • detect a seal in the articular tissues.

The combination of clinical symptoms and information obtained from the image provides a high-quality diagnosis and diagnosis, with the definition of further treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.

The degree of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Modern medicine divides knee arthrosis into several degrees, in accordance with the nature of the development of pathological processes.

To begin with, it is worth noting that, according to observations, the disease can be of a different nature:

  • unilateral (right-handed / left-handed);
  • bilateral.

In addition, the pathological process has three stages of development, each of which has its own clinical picture.

1 degree of arthrosis of the knee joint

The initial stage in the development of pathology, the successful diagnosis of which is an incredible success not only for the patient, but also for the attending physician.

The peculiarity of the degree of development of arthrosis at this stage is the absence of clinical signs and vivid symptoms. Identification of an ailment can be carried out during a clinical examination or in the study of another disease.

The evidence of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree can be:

  • local discomfort in the knee area during prolonged walking;
  • mild pain that disappears during rest.

It is important to note the fact that pain can be felt in one or both joints of the lower extremities.

It is interesting to note that left-sided gonarthrosis is often diagnosed in left-handers, while right-sided gonarthrosis is typical for people associated with various sports.

2 degree of arthrosis of the knee joint

Symptoms of the second degree of development of pathology are accompanied by an expansion of signs, which are customary to include:

  • pronounced pain syndrome;
  • stiffness and severe discomfort in the knee joint;
  • atrophy of the muscles located near the knee joint, which is caused by tissue damage;
  • increased pain;
  • visually noticeable deformation of the joint;
  • limitation of mobility.

Expansion of symptomatology simplifies the diagnostic process. Changes characteristic of the 2nd degree of arthrosis of the knee joint are easy to track during palpation. During a clinical examination, a specialist easily detects an abnormal mass in the knee area.

3 degree of arthrosis of the knee joint

It is almost impossible not to notice the pathology of the third degree, because the patient is faced with constant pain. In addition, the progress of the disease reaches a critical level, which is manifested by the strongest deformity of the joint, in which the limb completely loses the ability to bend / extend.

The lack of proper treatment leads to the complete destruction of cartilage and, as a result, the development of ankylosis (fusion of the articular bones).

The only solution for the final degree of development of the disease is an expensive surgical intervention, involving the removal of remnants of cartilage tissue or joint replacement.

How to treat arthrosis of the knee joint?

The level of modern medicine is at a sufficiently high level, which ensures the successful treatment of diseases of various types. Knee arthrosis is no exception.

Today, there are a large number of methods for treating arthrosis of the knee joint.

At the initial stages of the development of pathology, predominantly conservative methods of treatment are used. Conservative therapy includes:

  • physiotherapy procedures;
  • physiotherapy exercises (exercise therapy);
  • visiting various massages.

Also, progressive methods of treating osteoarthritis of the knee joint are actively used. Among modern effective methods of dealing with dangerous pathology, there are such as:

  • ozone therapy - a local effect of ozone on the affected articular tissues. Helps to reduce pain and stop inflammation. Improves blood circulation in the problem area;
  • kinesitherapy is a set of exercises for arthrosis of the knee joint, aimed at increasing its mobility and increasing blood flow.

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee with physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is one of the most popular treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

Methods of physical influence, subject to a certain number of conditions, have the most positive effect on the zone of localization of pathologies of various types.

Physiotherapy includes procedures such as:

  • electrophoresis;
  • ultraphonophoresis;
  • laser / infrared irradiation;
  • pulse magnetotherapy.

The effectiveness of the procedures is individual and depends on the quality of the elaboration of the patient's main treatment plan.

Massage as a treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Massage is a useful addition to the treatment of knee arthrosis.

Most experts around the world are of the opinion that massage is an obligatory component of the treatment of symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint, which has a beneficial effect on metabolic processes and helps to accelerate recovery.

Knee massage can be performed both at home and within the walls of a hospital. The main thing during massage is preliminary high-quality heating of the joint and adherence to the optimal duration of the process (from 10-15 minutes).

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with massage should include techniques such as stroking, rubbing and kneading.

Gymnastics and exercise therapy for arthrosis of the knee joint

Exercise for arthrosis of the knee joint is an effective way to eliminate unpleasant symptoms and treat the disease.

The process of treating arthrosis of the knee is a rather complicated and lengthy process, and physiotherapy exercises are an excellent assistant in achieving the desired result.

The type of exercise therapy and exercises for arthrosis of the knee joint are selected by a specialist on an individual basis, depending on the degree of development of the pathology and the general condition of the patient's physical fitness.

The main principle of gymnastics for arthrosis of the knee joint sounds like: no increased stress on the affected joint, only rational, calm actions.

Medicines for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Medical treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint is used to relieve symptoms such as pain and swelling, as well as to activate regenerative processes.

Preparations for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint can have a different form of release (ointments / gels, tablets or injections, plaster).

Important! Any medication must be prescribed by a specialist as part of an existing treatment plan designed for the symptoms of knee arthrosis.

Self-medication is unacceptable and can lead to extremely negative consequences, in particular - paralysis of the lower limbs and disability.

Pain relievers for arthrosis of the knee joint

They are used to eliminate the symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint.

Painkillers in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint play an important role, because their use improves the patient's well-being and gives him the opportunity to have a good night's rest.

Pain relief is achieved through the action of active substances.

Antispasmodicswith osteoarthritis of the knee

Assigned as active assistance. A key area of activity is the fight against spasms.

The active substances that make up the preparations help to relax the muscle frame and provide pain relief.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint with drugs of this type provides not only the elimination of pain, but also the slowdown, complete elimination of the progress of pathological processes.

Regular intake of medicines allows you to observe a constant concentration of active ingredients, which guarantees a positive effect.

Chondroprotectors for arthrosis of the knee joint

The main helpers in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint with drugs are chondroprotectors.

The active action of chondroprotectors in arthrosis of the knee joint is aimed at restoring motor ability, which is due to the microelements included in the composition, which are an integral component in the process of building cartilage tissue.

The peculiarity of the principle of action of drugs assumes a fairly long, but at the same time effective process of getting rid of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.

Diet and general nutritional recommendations for arthrosis of the knee joint

Diet for arthrosis of the knee joint is necessary for overweight patients. A low calorie diet and a richness of nutrients will ensure a decrease in body weight and accelerate the recovery of affected joints.

Nutrition for arthrosis of the knee joint must first of all be balanced. The daily diet should contain meals enriched with useful vitamins and microelements necessary for the regeneration of joint tissues and maintaining the balance of the whole body.

It is recommended to give up not only bad habits (alcohol abuse and smoking), but also from such dishes as:

  • store semi-finished products;
  • fatty, spicy and overly salty foods;
  • sweet carbonated drinks.

For the convenience and competent alignment of the diet, in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee, it is recommended to keep a food diary, which disciplines and helps to facilitate the process of restructuring the usual way of life.

Prevention of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

The whole range of preventive measures can be divided into two groups:

  • primary- are aimed at reducing the risks of pathology;
  • secondary- are aimed at reducing the rate of development of an existing disease.

The primary ones are:

  • increased attention to the joints of the lower extremities;
  • playing sports, in order to strengthen the periarticular muscles;
  • maintaining optimal body weight;
  • swimming.

Secondary prevention includes:

  • a systematic course of treatment with chondroprotectors;
  • timely seeking qualified medical help when signs of arthritis appear.

Remember that early detection of a disease significantly increases the likelihood of a complete cure.

Do not neglect going to the doctor if you have even the slightest symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint.